Notes for US Ratification of ICESCR?

1. Frank C. Newman, "United Nations Human Rights Covenants and the United States Government: Diluted Promises, Foreseeable Futures," De Paul Law Review, vol. 42, Summer 1993, 1242, Note 7.

2. Sei Fijii v. State, 217 P. 2d 481 (1950), rehearing denied, 218 P. 2d 595 (Cal. App. 1950), aff'd on other grounds, 38 Cal. 2d 718, 242 P. 2d 617 (1952).

3. For the history of this argument see Corrigan v. Buckley, 271 U.S. 323 (1926), Hansberry v. Lee, 311 U.S. 32 (1940, Shelly v. Kraemer, 344 U.S. 1 (1948), Barrows v. Jackson, 346 U.S. 249 (1953).

4. David P. Stewart, "United States Ratification of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: The Significance of the Reservations, Understandings, and Declarations," De Paul Law Review, vol. 42, Summer 1993, 1184-85, note 5.

5. 11 F.A.M. 700, 796 (State Dept. Circular No. 175).

6. Hurst Hannum and Dana D. Fischer, editors, U.S. Ratification of the International Covenants on Human Rights (New York: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 1993), 15.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., 16-17.

9. Ibid.

10. CONG. REC., 19 Sept. 1977, at 15188, in Hannum and Fischer, 18.

11. Message from the President Transmitting Four Treaties Pertaining to Human Rights, S. Exec. Docs. C, D, E and F, 95th Cong., 2d Sess., at 111 (1978).

12. Newman, 1242.

13. Hannum and Fischer, 19.

14. Ibid.

15. New York Times, Nov. 5, 1981, at 1 and 29, in Philip Alston, "U.S. Ratification of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Need for an Entirely New Strategy," Georgia Journal of International Law, vol. 84, Summer 1990, 338.

16. Hannum and Fischer, 286.

17. Louis Henkin, "Editorial Comments - U.S. Ratification of Human Rights Conventions: The Ghost of Senator Bricker," The American Journal of International Law, vol. 89, April 1995, 341.

18. Ibid., 344.

19. U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev. 1/Add 6(1994) in Henkin, 343, Note 11.

20. Henkin, 346.

21. International Human Rights Treaties: Hearings Before the Senate Comm. On Foreign Relations, 96th Cong., 1st Sess. 35 (1979), 36 (J. Goldklang, Department of Justice).

22. Ibid., at 5 (C. Yost).

23. UN Doc. E/C.12/1989/CRP.2/Add.1, General Comment No. 1, paragraph 2.

24. Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States, Section 701, Reporters' Note 8 (1987).

25. General Comment No. 3 (1990), UN Doc. E/1991/23, Annex III, UN ESCOR, Supp. (No. 3), at 83, para. 2, in Matthew Craven, The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1998), 115.

26. General Comment No. 3, para. 4, in Craven, 115-16.

27. General Comment No. 1 (1989), at 88, para. 3, in Craven, 118.

28. E/C.12/CRP.I/Add. 10, at 5.

29. Craven, 119.

30. Ibid., 120.

31. Ibid., 121.

32. E/1993/22, 82, at 84, para. 10, in Craven, 122.

33. General Comment No. 3, at 85, para. 8, in Craven, 123.

34. Cassin (France), E/CN.4/SR.223, at 8 (1951).

35. General Comment No. 3, at 85, in Craven, 128 and 131.

36. Ibid., 109.

37. Message of the President Transmitting Four Treaties Pertaining to Human Rights, S. Exec. Doc. No. 95-C, D, E & F, 95th Cong., 2d Sess., at ix (1978).

38. General Comment No. 3, at 84, para. 5, in Craven, 135.

39. Reporting Guidelines, UN Doc. E/1991/23, Annex IV, at 91, para. 3, UN ESCOR, Supp. (no. 3) (1991).

40. E. Schwelf, "The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination" (1966) 15 ICLQ 996, at 1001.

41. Philip Alston, "U.S. Ratification of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights," Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol. 20, Summer 1990, 311.

42. Hannum and Fischer, 171.

43. Craven, 208.

44. Ibid.

45. See General Comment No. 2 (1990), UN ESCOR, Supp. (No. 3), Annex III, at 88, para. 9, UN Doc. E/C.12/1990/3 (1990), in Craven, 208.

46. Report Guidelines, UN ESCOR, Supp. (No. 3), Annex IV, at 92, UN Doc. E/C.12/1990/8 (1991), in Craven, 234.

47. Craven, 237.

48. Ibid., 238.

49. General Comment No. 3 (1990), UN EXCOR, Supp. (No. 3), Annex III, at 84, para. 5, UN Doc. E/1991/23 (1991), in Craven, 261.

50. Craven, 331. See General Comment No. 4, at 117, para. 10.

51. Craven, 333. See Reporting Guidelines, at 13-14.

52. General Comment No. 4, at 115, para. 7, in Craven, 335.

53. Ibid., at 118, para. 14.

54. "Luxembourg Income Study," in Alston, 347. See Palmer & Torrey, "Patterns of Income and Poverty: The Economic Status of Children and the Elderly in Eight Countries," in The Vulnerable (1988).

55. Good, "Freedom from Want: The Failure of United States Courts to Protect Subsistence Rights," 6 Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 335 (1984), in Alston, 349, note 79.

56. L. Tribe, American Constitutional Law, (2d ed. 1988), 1671, in Alston, 349, note 80.

57. Hannum, 263-4.

58. E.S.C. Rec. 1988/4, 1988 U.N. ESCOR, Supp. (No. 1) at 8, U.N. Doc. 6/1988/88 (1988), para. 16.

59. Jeffery Huffines, "The Role of N.G.O.S in U.S. Ratification of Human Rights Treaties," ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, vol. 3, 1997, 641.

60. Ibid., 645.

61. Ibid., 647.

62. Ibid.

63. Susan Kilbourne, "U.S. Failure to Ratify the U.N. Convention on the Child: Playing Politics with Children's Rights," Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, vol. 6, Fall 1996, 437.

64. Ibid., 439.

65. S. Res. 70, 103d Cong., 1st Sess., 139 CONG. REC. 1640 (daily ed. 1993), in Alison Dundes Renteln, "Who's Afraid of the CRC: Objections to the Convention on the Rights of the Child," ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, vol. 3, 1997, 629.

66. See The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Press Release, Feb. 10, 1995; also John F. Harris, "U.S. to Sign U.N. Pact on Child Rights," Washington Post, Feb. 11, 1995, A3, in Kilbourne, 438.

67. Ambassador Madelaine Albright, "Remarks at the State Department Conference on Crises" (April 3, 1995). FED. NEWS SER., in Renteln, 629.

68. S. Res. 133, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. (1995), in Kilbourne, 437.

69. Douglas Phillips, The Legal Impact of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, (National Association for Home Education, Paeonian Springs, Va.), in Kilbourne, 441.

70. Renteln, 638.

71. 141 CONG. REC. S 8400 (daily ed. 1995) (Statement of Senator Helms), in Renteln, 635.

72. Alert (Family Research Council, Washington, D.C.), February 22, 1995, in Kilbourne, 445.

73. "U.N. Treaty Strips Parents of Rights," Focus on the Family Citizen (Focus on the Family, Colorado Springs, Colorado), July 17, 1991, 32-33, in Kilbourne, 446.

74. Phyllis Schafly, "The New World Order Wants Your Children," The Phyllis Schafly Report (Eagle Trust Foundation, Alton, Illinois), March 1993, in Kilbourne, 449-450.

75. ABA Report, 86, in Kilbourne, 450.

76. United Nations, Committee on the Rights of the Child, "Concluding Observation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Canada," U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.37 at paragraph 25 (1995) (recommending "that the physical punishment of children be prohibited"), in Kilbourne, 451.

77. Renteln, 634.

78. Barbara Stark, "Economic Rights in the United States and International Human Rights Law: Toward an 'Entirely New Strategy'," Hastings Law Journal, vol. 44, November 1992, 98-99.

79. Ibid., 97.

80. Ibid., 107.

81. Henkin, 345.

82. Alston, 348.

83. National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter on Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy (1986), 43.

84. L. Livezey, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Ideas of Human Rights (1987), 89, in Alston, 356.

85. A partial list of organizations supporting the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was obtained from the U.S. Committee for UNICEF, lists 223 organizations. These include: AFL-CIO Executive Council, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Retired Persons, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Federation of Teachers, American Friends Service Committee, American Psychological Association, American Red Cross, Amnesty International USA, B'nai B'rith International, Baptist World Alliance Council, Camp Fire, Inc., Catholic Charities USA, Child Welfare League of America, Children's Defense Fund, Christian Children's Fund, Inc., Girl Scouts of the United States of America, Greek Orthodox Church of North and South America, Lutheran World Relief, Mennonite Central Committee, National Association of Social Workers, National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States, National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA, National Education Association, Presbyterian Church USA, Save the Children, Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, Office for Church in Society of the United Church of Christ, General Board of Global Ministries of the United Methodist Church, United Way International, YMCA, YWCA of the USA. Kilbourne, 458.

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